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Sognare la Sorella: significato e numeri al lotto I migliori film sui sogni. Dreams, yesterday and today: what dream symbols from the Middle Ages and Renaissance can teach us about our present reality. An interview with Valerio Cappozzo. Olschki In addition to his work on medieval and Renaissance culture, Cappozzo has written extensively on the twentieth-century Italian authors Carlo Michelstaedter and Giorgio Bassani.
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Valerio Cappozzo : I started to investigate the theme of dreams in the Middle Ages through the discipline of material philology, which focuses on the object of the manuscript as a whole. Analyzing the entire manuscript helps to reveal the practices and cultures of the society that made it. These are very general terms to frame my approach, and more precisely the theme on which I have been working now for more than a decade: dreams. I have been focusing on dreams through studying a text, the Dream-book of Daniel the Prophet , which is the most widely circulated and popular dream manual, and attributed to the Prophet Daniel.
I observe how this text is bound with other collections in manuscripts produced in the Middle Ages and in the Renaissance. My work presents a dictionary of medieval dream symbols, and is based on editions of codices in Latin and Italian, going from the 9 th to the beginning of 16 th century, and it also includes the first Latin and vernacular printed versions of the Dictionary from to The form of the work has its origins in early 4 th century A.
Greek manuscripts, and thrived in the Middle Ages mainly in Arabic, Latin, and the European languages. This dictionary of dream symbols contains around different symbols, each of which has many variations, for a total of around possible interpretations.
Such materials can help advance our knowledge of medieval and early modern creativity in relation to the interlinked worlds of imagination and reality. It consists of a list of dream symbols arranged in an alphabetical order, and interpreted as portending something good or evil for a dreamer.
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Like medieval bestiaries, dream-books constitute compelling tools to investigate the collective imagination of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. These manuals were usually structured so that key terms in the text corresponded to the subject of the dream, while the key-words were arranged alphabetically with a concise interpretation of its symbol.
The system established both quick and easy access to terms, symbols, and their meanings, and functioned as a convenient guide to the interpretation of dreams. It serves, too, as an important tool for understanding medieval literary as well as other dreams, and for identifying and describing traditional dream images. Together with the character, Dante, the reader can anticipate and comprehend the narrative at a deeper level. If in reality dreams were thought as anticipation of the future, in literature as well they can function pretty much in the same way: they reveal what will happen in the rest of the story, or at least they give to the reader those key elements that let you anticipate the narration.
As a result of my studies, I understood more about how dreams were deciphered by common people, and then, of course, how writers, such as Dante and Boccaccio, would use them in their works. Studying dreams helped me understand better the everyday reality of a time period like the Middle Ages.
HW : How does the Dream Dictionary show us life six hundred years ago, and life today? VC : The most remarkable fact about this dream dictionary is that the red thread of dream interpretation remains pretty much unchanged from antiquity to today. This is the reason why it persisted almost unchanged inits structure since the 4 th century until today; and this is the very reason why,it is used coherently by different poets and scientists in the Middle Ages and in the Renaissance.
In fact, dreams are common to every individual — rich or poor, learned or illiterate — and were important keys to interpreting the future of people of all classes. The more evident change in the history of dream interpretation occurred at the beginning of twentieth century, when Sigmund Freud started working on dreams considered as a potential tool to investigate the deepest part of our personality and our past, and not as a possible prediction of the future thanks to the analysis of external elements.
But even after the birth of psychoanalysis, popular dream-books continued to be considered the best way to interpret dreams. The last dream-books I found are in fact on my phone and not in a library! There are several smartphone applications for dream interpretation that are still inspired by the Somniale Danielis. This is a clear sign of continuity. HW : The manuscripts you have studied combine different fields of knowledge, including literature, astronomy and astrology.
How did the premodern world bring together symbols and the stars, the world within and the world above? The concept of revelation and of interpretation of the scriptures and holy messages is of primary importance in Mediterranean religions. In the Bible , dreams were deciphered by prophets exclusively; a manual like the Somniale Danielis is a do-it-yourself interpretation of dreams and need mediators no more.
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How might it have influenced their thinking? VC : Another important aspect of my research is the connection of the dream books with early Italian literature that I was able to observe materially in all the manuscripts I used for my edition. These manuscripts associate in fact the Dreambook with complex, elegant literary texts such as the Vita Nova , the Decameron , the Acerba , that all contain dreams.
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This literature used dreams as a narrative expedient because it was an element that could be perceived and understood easily and widely. While the manuscripts I used for the Dictionary are representative of different readers, the trend shared by all is the linkage between the popular form of the dream-book, now combined into a manual, and the development of a new philosophical poetics in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries.
I have identified in one manuscript MS Riccardiano the version that will be later published in Florence as the printed Somniale. It was published by Lorenzo Morgiani in and became the most widely circulated dream manual during the Florentine Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci owned this edition of medieval dream manual and he used it exactly as the medieval poets we just talked about.
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Moreover, he maintained the same dream symbology that we find in the Somniale to write his apocalyptic prophecies. HW : What can the dictionary teach us about ways of understanding the humanities and the sciences today?
http://mail.ruk-com.in.th/tras-el-velo-de-avalon.php VC : For us today, the most important lesson coming from ancient dream interpretation is how fields of knowledge were interconnected, while today they are separated and we are often unable to bridges those boundaries. The dream dictionary may also tell us about how people in the past were connected with their natural world as a whole, listening to it, and reading into it as in a book: something that our post-modernity very often completely ignores, unfortunately. Lastly, the dream dictionary also reminds us, through the practice of dream interpretation, to use our human imagination to decipher and perhaps solve clues that our irrational world offers.
Such applications are, on the contrary, a simplistic compendium shortcut to understanding the dream elements of an individual psyche that are, in reality, specific to his biographical history.